Adult Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system.Adult Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops in the lymph system, part of the body's immune system. The lymph system is made up of the following:
Because lymph tissue is found throughout the body, Hodgkin lymphoma can begin in almost any part of the body and spread to almost any tissue or organ in the body. Lymphomas are divided into two general types: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This summary is about the treatment of adult Hodgkin lymphoma. (See the PDQ summary on for more information.) Hodgkin lymphoma can occur in both adults and children; however, treatment for adults may be different than treatment for children. Hodgkin lymphoma may also occur in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); these patients require special treatment. See the following PDQ summaries for more information:
- AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment
There are two main types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical and nodular lymphocyte-predominant.Most Hodgkin lymphomas are the classical type. The classical type is broken down into the following four subtypes:
- Nodular sclerosing Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Mixed cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Lymphocyte depletion Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Age, gender, and Epstein-Barr infection can affect the risk of adult Hodgkin lymphoma.Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Risk factors for adult Hodgkin lymphoma include the following:
- Being in young or late adulthood.
- Being male.
- Having a first-degree relative (parent, brother, or sister) with Hodgkin lymphoma.
Signs of adult Hodgkin lymphoma include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by adult Hodgkin lymphoma or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if any of the following do not go away:
- Fever for no known reason.
- Drenching night sweats.
- Weight loss for no known reason.
- Itchy skin.
- Feeling very tired.
Tests that examine the lymph nodes are used to detect (find) and diagnose adult Hodgkin lymphoma.The following tests and procedures may be used:
- Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
- Sedimentation rate: A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the rate at which the red blood cells settle to the bottom of the test tube.
Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:
- The patient's signs and symptoms.
- The stage of the cancer.
- The type of Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Blood test results.
- The patient's age, gender, and general health.
- Whether the cancer is recurrent or progressive.
- The wishes of the patient.
- The age of the fetus.