Laryngeal Cancer Treatment - General Information About Laryngeal Cancer

Laryngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the larynx.

The larynx is a part of the throat, between the base of the tongue and the trachea. The larynx contains the vocal cords, which vibrate and make sound when air is directed against them. The sound echoes through the pharynx, mouth, and nose to make a person's voice. There are three main parts of the larynx:

    Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the epiglottis, supraglottis, glottis, subglottis, and vocal cords. Also shown are the tongue, trachea, and esophagus.
    Anatomy of the larynx. The three parts of the larynx are the supraglottis (including the epiglottis), the glottis (including the vocal cords), and the subglottis.
    Most laryngeal cancers form in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells lining the inside of the larynx. Laryngeal cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.

    Use of tobacco products and drinking too much alcohol can affect the risk of laryngeal cancer.

    Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk.

    Signs and symptoms of laryngeal cancer include a sore throat and ear pain.

    These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by laryngeal cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:
    • A sore throat or cough that does not go away.
    • Trouble or pain when swallowing.
    • Ear pain.
    • A lump in the neck or throat.
    • A change or hoarseness in the voice.

    Tests that examine the throat and neck are used to help detect (find), diagnose, and stage laryngeal cancer.

    The following tests and procedures may be used:
    • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
    • PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. A small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The PET scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the body. Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do.
    • Bone scan: A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner.
    • Barium swallow: A series of x-rays of the esophagus and stomach. The patient drinks a liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and x-rays are taken. This procedure is also called an upper GI series.

    Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

    Prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on the following:
    • The stage of the disease.
    • The location and size of the tumor.
    • The grade of the tumor.
    • The patient's age, gender, and general health, including whether the patient is anemic.
    Treatment options depend on the following:
    • The stage of the disease.
    • The location and size of the tumor.
    • Keeping the patient's ability to talk, eat, and breathe as normal as possible.
    • Whether the cancer has come back (recurred).
    Smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol decrease the effectiveness of treatment for laryngeal cancer. Patients with laryngeal cancer who continue to smoke and drink are less likely to be cured and more likely to develop a second tumor. After treatment for laryngeal cancer, frequent and careful follow-up is important.