Sodium (Salt) Intake and Cancer

Salt is present in nearly every food we eat. Before the salt shaker even makes an appearance, most foods and drinks contain some sodium.  The average person consumes about 3500 mg of sodium per day. This is more than twice as much as what is recommended. 

In 2014 the American Heart Association changed its' sodium recommendation to less that 1,500mg Sodium per day. Talk with your healthcare team to see what your daily sodium goal is. If you are on a meal plan that controls sodium, pick foods mostly that have 300mg or less of sodium per serving. To eat less sodium, you will have to move beyond your use of the salt shaker. More than 75 percent of the sodium we eat comes from processed foods. Eating out and to-go foods are another source of sodium. Decide what you are going to eat when you eat away from home and research menus and nutrient content online at restaurant websites.

In addition to increasing risk for heart disease and high blood pressure, excessive salt intake also increases risk for cancer. According to an expert panel at the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), excessive salt and salted preserved foods damage the lining of the stomach which may contribute to the development of stomach cancer.  During treatment for cancer, salt may pose a problem if fluid retention becomes an issue.  It is best to limit sodium, eat mainly unprocessed foods, and drink plenty of water during treatment.

 

Common Foods and their Sodium Content:

Food

Portion

Sodium Content (mg)

Asparagus (fresh or frozen)

4 spears

8

Asparagus (canned)

4 spears

207

Pickle

1 spear

833

Bacon

3 slices

439

Salt

1 teaspoon

2325

Chicken Noodle Soup

1 cup

850

Tomato juice

1 cup

654

Self-rising flour

1 cup

1588

Soy sauce

1 tablespoon

902

Potato chips

1 ounce

149

Milk

1 cup

108

Hot Dog

1

504

Cheeseburger (fast food)

1 burger

1051

Saltine crackers

4

129

Cheddar cheese

1 ounce

176

Raisin Bran Cereal

1 cup

362

Source: USDA National Nutrient Database

The following are some tips and information to help you reduce and monitor sodium intake:

  • Read food labels and focus on the sodium content per serving.  Limit foods that contain more than 200mg of sodium per serving.
  • Limit processed foods such as frozen, canned, and snack food items.  When choosing canned foods such as beans or tomatoes, look for those labeled “No Salt Added”. If you are unable to find “no salt added” vegetables, rinse canned vegetables thoroughly in a colander. This will remove some (about one-third) of the sodium.
  • Limit or avoid smoked or cured foods such as sausage, bacon, hot dogs, and lunch meat.  An expert panel at the American Institute for Cancer Research also found that the preservatives used in cured, smoked, and salted foods may have a direct link to colon cancer as well as stomach cancer.
  • Avoid flavored rice and noodle packets.  Prepare plain rice or noodles and season your own.
  • Look for salad dressings with the lowest sodium content.  An even better and more economical option is to make your own.
  • Prepare the majority of food at home.  Fast food, prepared foods, and restaurant foods tend to have a more salt than when the same foods are prepared at home.
     
  • Eat fresh or frozen vegetables seasoned with herbs or citrus juices instead of salt. 
  • Avoid frozen vegetables that are pre-seasoned or have a sauce.
  • Look for sodium-free seasonings to try on meats and vegetables.

 

Try these seasonings instead of salt:

Food

Seasoning

Beef

Bay leaf, marjoram, nutmeg, onion, pepper, sage, thyme

Lamb

Curry powder, garlic, rosemary, mint

Pork

Garlic, onion, sage, pepper oregano

Veal

Bay leaf, curry powder, ginger, marjoram, oregano

Chicken

Ginger, marjoram, oregano, paprika, poultry seasoning, rosemary, sage, tarragon, thyme

Fish

Curry powder, dill, dry mustard, marjoram, paprika, pepper

Carrots

Cinnamon, cloves, dill, ginger, marjoram, nutmeg, rosemary, sage

Corn

Cumin, curry powder, onion, paprika, parsley

Green Beans

Dill, curry powder, marjoram, oregano, tarragon, thyme

Greens

Onion, pepper

Potatoes

 Dill, garlic, onion, paprika, parsley, sage

Summer Squash

Cloves, curry powder, marjoram, nutmeg, rosemary, sage

Winter Squash

Cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, onion

Tomatoes

Basil, bay leaf, dill, marjoram, onion, oregano, parsley, pepper

Cucumbers

chives, dill, garlic, vinegar

Peas

green pepper, mint, fresh mushrooms, onion, parsley

Rice

chives, green pepper, onion, paprika, parsley

Source: http://www4.ncsu.edu/~aibrantl/cookingwithherbs.html

 

Keep in mind that reducing salt in your diet is a process.  Becoming more aware of the sodium content of foods is the first step in making lower sodium food choices.